State channels. Large networks a generate hundreds of billions of transactions. Any attempt to execute smart contracts, even for only a fraction of these transactions, will generate exorbitant gas costs. In its present state, this would surpass the bandwidth of the Ethereum network. A technology called state channels is being developed, however, that is capable of supporting these loads. There are already projects dedicated to using state channels for high-speed payments such as the Raiden Network14 and Lightning Network15.